Halal CertificationHalal FatwasInternasionalNewsUpdate

Critical Point of Unlawfulness of Dyes

Assalamu’alaikum Sobat Halal-Mu

Sobat Halal-Mu, have you often heard of coloring agents? One of the substances whose use is often used in industry, especially the food and processing industry.

Why is that? Because coloring agents that are commonly added to food products have several functions, including:

  1. Restore the original color of products and ingredients that are damaged during the processing process.
  2. Uniform the color of the product.
  3. Reinforces the natural color of a product.
  4. Making the product look more interesting and attractive.

Then where is the critical point of the colorant’s halalness? Quoted from the Reference List of Halal Critical Point Ingredients and Non-Halal Substitutes by Prof. Dr. Irwandi Jaswir, MSc, Ir. Elvina A. Rahayu, MP, Dr. Nancy Dewi Yuliana, MSc and Dr. Anna Priangani Roswiem, MS, the description of each coloring agent is accompanied by a general description of the availability of ingredients. Anna Priangani Roswiem, MS, a description of each coloring agent is accompanied by a general description of the availability of raw materials for making the coloring agent, as well as the critical point of halalness for each ingredient, unless the coloring agent is included in the list of positive ingredients MUI (Indonesian Ulama Council) then the material is considered halal and can be used without the need to collect information about the origin of the ingredients and additives contained therein.

Quoted from BPOM Regulation No. 11 of 2019, based on the source, dyes are divided into 2 types, namely natural and synthetic dyes.

A.        Natural Colorants

  • Annato Extract

The part of the plant that is extracted and utilized as a natural dye is the seed coat. The resulting pigment gives a red to purple color. This dye is commonly used in food products, beverages, cosmetics and household appliances. In terms of halalness, this material is relatively safe because it is only sourced from plants extracted with organic solvents.

  • Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin belongs to a class of carotenoids carrying oxygen atoms (xanthophyll carotenoids) that are found in a wide variety of organisms and marine life. This pigment gives a purple-brown to purple-red color, and is widely applied in salmon and crustacean farming to enhance the color of these species.

The halal status of this material depends on the extraction method and the solvent used for extraction or as a carrier solvent. If the pigment is extracted using enzymes, the source of the enzymes must be known (see the Enzymes chapter of this book for more details). If the solvent used is oil, it is necessary to trace the source of the oil whether it really consists only of vegetable oil without the addition of other ingredients that may be critical for halal.

  • Red beet tuber

This red dye is obtained from red beet tubers. In general, the betanin pigment derived from beetroot is obtained by grinding with pressing, filtering and evaporation to produce a red powder. Ingredients added during the production process can potentially be a critical point of halalness that needs to be traced, such as stabilizers and maltodextrin.

  • Beta carotene

Carotenoids in the form of beta-carotene are found in fruits, vegetables, and grains, which have orange, red and dark green colors. Beta carotene production can be done by the enol-ether condensation method which is carried out through three stages, namely: acetal formation, enol ether insertion catalyzed by Lewis acid, acetal hydrolysis and alcohol elimination. Beta carotene production can also be done with the help of microorganisms. Fungi such as Blakeslea trispora and Phycomyces blakesleeanus are known to produce beta carotene through fermentation. The tipping point for the halalness of beta carotene depends on how it is made. If it is produced through a chemical synthesis process, then in terms of raw materials it is not too crucial.

  • Carmin

Carmin is a bright red pigment from the aluminum salt of the carminic acid compound. This compound is extracted mainly from female insects, because carmin compounds are most abundant in the abdominal body parts and mature eggs. Carmin pigment is produced on an industrial scale by cultivating cochineal insects inside cactus plants for three months. During production, several compounds are commonly added, such as PbCl2, citric acid, borax or gelatin, so this dye is quite critical in terms of halalness. And others.

B.        Synthetic Dyes

  • Carmoisine

Carmoisine/azorubine is an azo dye with the chemical name disodium 4-hydroxy-3-(4-sulphonato-1- naphtylazo) naphthalene-1-sulphonate. Food products that use this type of coloring include americano, confectionery, dessert, soup, cheese, fish paste, meat and fish analogs, smoked fish (EFB) and fish analogs, smoked fish (EFSA 2009c). This coloring additive is included in the halal positive list of materials MUI (2013).

  • Sunset Yellow FCF

This compound has the chemical name disodium 2-hydroxyl-1-4(4sulfonatophenylazo)naphthalene-6- sulfonate, is water soluble and slightly soluble in ethanol (EFSA 2009b). In water, neutral or acidic solutions, Sunset Yellow gives a yellow-orange color. However, when dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid, sunset yellow will give an orange color that will turn yellow when diluted (FAO 2008). additives. This colorant is included in the halal positive list of materials MUI (2013). This dye is marketed as a mixture of disodium 2-hydroxyl-1-4(4sulfonatophenylazo)naphthalene-6- sulfonate, a derivative coloring agent formed during the manufacturing process, and sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as colorless constituent components (EFSA 2009b).

  • Ponceu 4R

Ponceau 4R is a zo dye with the chemical formula trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4- sulphonato – 1- naphthlazo)- naphthalene- 6,8 disulphonate. This compound is water soluble and slightly soluble in ethanol (EFSA 2009d). This coloring additive is included in the halal positive list of materials MUI (2013).

  • Brown HT (Brown HT)

Brown HT is a reddish brown bis-azo dye in the form of powder or granules with the molecular formula disodium 4,4′-(2,4-dihydroxy-5- hydroxymethyl-1,3-phenylene bis-azo) di-(naphthalene-1-sulfonate) (EFSA 2010c). This coloring additive is included in the halal positive list of materials MUI (2013).

  • Etc.

Halal Is Our Need, Our Quality and Our Choice!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *